For Kant, there are four antinomies, associated with: In each antinomy, an antithesis is refuted. For example: In the first antinomy, Kant proves the thesis that time must have a beginning by showing that if time had no beginning, an infinity would have passed into the present moment. This is an obvious contradiction, for infinity cannot, by definition, be supplemented by a “successive synthesis” – but precisely such a final synthesis would be necessary for the idea that time is infinite; The thesis is therefore proven. Then he proves the antithesis that time has no beginning by showing that if time had a beginning, there must be an “empty time” from which time was born. This is inconsistent (for Kant) for the following reason: since no time necessarily passes in this temporal vacuum, there could be no change, and therefore nothing (including time) would ever happen: this is how the antithesis is proven. Reason makes the same claim to any evidence, since both are correct, so the question of time frames must be seen as meaningless. This was part of Kant`s critical program of defining the limits of science and philosophical research. These contradictions are inherent in reason when applied to the world as it is in itself, regardless of its perception (this has to do with the distinction between phenomena and noumena). Kant`s goal in his critical philosophy was to discover which claims are justified and which are not, and antinomies are a particularly striking example of his larger project. The philosopher Immanuel Kant proposed four antinomies. One of them explained that the world has a certain beginning and will have a certain end.
On the other hand, Kant added, the world is infinite in terms of time and space. Both statements seem reasonable at first glance, but since it is impossible for the world to be both finite and infinite, the two ideas together form an antinomy. Well, one day, Mr. Hadamard came to see me and the conversation fell on this antinomy. The term acquired a special meaning in the philosophy of Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), who used it to describe the equally rational but contradictory results of the application of categories or criteria of reason proper to the universe of rational perception or experience (phenomena) to the universe of pure thought.  Empirical reason cannot play the role here of establishing rational truths, because it goes beyond possible experiences and applies to the sphere of what transcends it. German antinomy, from the Latin antinomia conflict of laws, from the Greek, from the anti- + nomos – law plus to the agile ANTINOMY. A term used in civil law to refer to the actual or apparent contradiction between two laws or two decisions.
Merl. Relevant. h.t. Empty conflict of laws rules. But for the most part, this unfortunate antinomy in the sciences is linked to its historical development. In the first volume of Capital, in the chapter “The Day of Labor”, Karl Marx asserts that capitalist production “maintains the affirmation of a right to an unlimited working day and the affirmation of a right to a limited working day, both with equal justification.”  Furner points out that the thesis and the antithesis of this antinomy are not contradictory opposites, but “consist in the assertion of rights under conditions that are contradictory opposites.” . “Antinomy.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/antinomy. Retrieved 30 September 2022. It is in fact a powerful antinomy, on a scale adapted to Tolstoy`s gigantic imagination.
Antinomy (Greek ἀντί, antí, “against, as opposed to”, and νόμος, nómos, “law”) refers to a real or apparent mutual incompatibility of two laws.  It is a term used in logic and epistemology, especially in the philosophy of Immanuel Kant. There are many examples of antinomy. A self-contradictory phrase such as “There is no absolute truth” can be considered an antinomy because this statement in itself suggests an absolute truth and therefore rejects any truth in its statement. A paradox such as “this sentence is false” can also be considered antinomy; For the sentence to be true, it must be false and vice versa. An expression in law and logic that indicates that two authorities, laws or declarations are incompatible with each other. After explaining the antinomy we have called Richard`s antinomy, he makes his statement. These sample sentences are automatically selected from various online information sources to reflect the current use of the word “antinomy.” The opinions expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us your feedback. Attempts are even made to reconcile the antinomy of freedom and the pre-knowledge of God. If two contradictory statements seem both reasonable and true, you can call this enigma antinomy. The name comes from the Latin and Greek word antinomia, which meant a contradiction in the law.
Britannica.com: Encyclopedia article on antinomy.